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 » Foreigne People » Introducion » Introduction ::ALBANIA

Introduction ::ALBANIA

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1 Introduction ::ALBANIA on Fri Mar 01, 2013 9:35 pm

Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, but was conquered by Italy in 1939. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960), and then with China (to 1978). In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997; however, there have been claims of electoral fraud in every one of Albania's post-Communist elections. The 2009 general elections resulted in a coalition government, the first such in the country's history. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and is a potential candidate for EU accession. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure.


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2 Re: Introduction ::ALBANIA on Fri Mar 01, 2013 9:36 pm

Geography ::ALBANIA


Location:

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece in the south and Montenegro and Kosovo to the north
Geographic coordinates:

41 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:

Europe
Area:

total: 28,748 sq km
country comparison to the world: 145
land: 27,398 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km
Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:

total: 717 km
border countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Montenegro 172 km, Kosovo 112 km
Coastline:

362 km
Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:

mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Terrain:

mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m
Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower
Land use:

arable land: 20.1%
permanent crops: 4.21%
other: 75.69% (2005)
Irrigated land:

3,650 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:

41.7 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 1.71 cu km/yr (27%/11%/62%)
per capita: 546 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:

destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Environment - current issues:

deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:

strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)


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3 Re: Introduction ::ALBANIA on Fri Mar 01, 2013 9:37 pm


People and Society ::ALBANIA
Nationality:

noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian
Ethnic groups:

Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb, Macedonian, Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)
Languages:

Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects
Religions:

Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
Population:

3,002,859 (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
Age structure:

0-14 years: 20.6% (male 325,922/female 292,252)
15-24 years: 19.8% (male 303,140/female 292,381)
25-54 years: 39.4% (male 562,026/female 620,112)
55-64 years: 9.6% (male 144,051/female 143,331)
65 years and over: 10.6% (male 150,901/female 168,743) (2012 est.)
population pyramid:
Median age:

total: 30.9 years
male: 29.6 years
female: 32.1 years (2012 est.)
Population growth rate:

0.28% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Birth rate:

12.38 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Death rate:

6.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Net migration rate:

-3.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
Urbanization:

urban population: 52% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - population:

TIRANA (capital) 433,000 (2009)
Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:

27 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 127
Infant mortality rate:

total: 14.12 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 123
male: 15.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 77.59 years
country comparison to the world: 62
male: 74.99 years
female: 80.49 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate:

1.48 children born/woman (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Health expenditures:

6.9% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 84
Physicians density:

1.146 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density:

2.92 beds/1,000 population (2007)
Sanitation facility access:

improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 98% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 2% of population
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:

NA
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

6.6% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 75
Education expenditures:

NA
Literacy:

definition: age 9 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.2%
female: 98.3% (2001 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2004)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 35.5%
country comparison to the world: 10
male: 41.6%
female: 27.1% (2001)


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